Saturday, May 28, 2011

Dimitri Tsafendas

Dimitri Tsafendas
 
The progeny of a black woman and white (Greek) man, Tsafendas didn’t readily fall into any of the prescribed racial group

Dimitri Tsafendas (14 January 1918 – 7 October 1999) assassinated South African Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd on 6 September 1966. Tsafendas, working as a parliamentary messenger, stabbed Verwoerd with a dagger during a parliamentary session.

 Hendrik Verwoerd

Prior life

Tsafendas was born in Lourenço Marques (today's Maputo) to Michaelis Tsafendas, a Greek seaman, and Amelia Williams, a Mozambican of mixed race. He was raised by his grandmother. At the age of ten, he moved to Transvaal, returning to Mozambique four years later. Tsafendas was shunned in white circles in Southern Africa because of his dark skin, though under the apartheid system's racial laws he was classified as white.
During the 1930s, Tsafendas joined the Communist Party. He became a seaman in the merchant marine in 1941. By this time, symptoms of schizophrenia had already begun to manifest. He was hospitalized several times in various countries due to outbreaks of irrational behavior.

He had become a baptised member of the Two by Twos sect while visiting Greece, and associated with its members after returning to South Africa on a temporary visa.

In 1966, Tsafendas obtained a temporary position as a parliamentary messenger. A month later on 6 September, Prime Minister Verwoerd entered the House of Assembly and made his way to his seat. Tsafendas approached him, drew a concealed knife, and stabbed Dr. Verwoerd multiple times in the chest before he could be pulled away by other members of parliament.

Following the assassination, he was disowned by the Two by Twos church.

Aftermath

At the trial, Judge Andries Beyers declared Tsafendas not guilty of murder by reason of insanity. He had been diagnosed as being schizophrenic and it was claimed by police that he had said that he had a giant tapeworm inside him, which spoke to him. The court ordered that he be detained "at the pleasure of the State President", which meant that only the State President (later President) had the authority to release him. He was never released.

Tsafendas was at first given a cell on death row in Pretoria Central Prison, next to the room in which men were hanged, sometimes seven at a time. In 1986, he was transferred to Zonderwater Prison near Cullinan. In 1994, he was transferred again, this time to Sterkfontein psychiatric hospital outside Krugersdorp, where he died at the age of 81.

Pretoria Central Prison

Zonderwater Prison near Cullinan.



Tsafendas died in October 1999 of pneumonia aggravated by chronic heart failure. His funeral was held according to Greek Orthodox rites, and he was buried in an unmarked grave outside Sterkfontein Hospital.




  1. ^ Obituary: Long-jailed assassin of South African premier in The Guardian, 11 October 1999. Archived by WebCite at [1] Retrieved on 8 July 2009.
  2. ^ Hollington, Kris. 2008. Wolves, Jackals, and Foxes: The Assassins Who Changed History. New York: Macmillan, p. 116. ISBN 978-0-3123-7899-8
  3. ^ Kahn, Ely J. The Separated People: A Look at Contemporary South Africa. New York City: W. W. Norton & Company, p. 149. ISBN 978-0-3930-5351-7
  4. ^ Dyzenhaus, David. 1998. Judging the Judges, Judging Ourselves: truth, reconciliation and the apartheid legal order Oxford: Hart Publishing, p. 50. ISBN 978-1-9013-6294-7
  5. ^ a b Robins, Jon. "The Assassin and the Tapeworm," The New Statesman. London. 27 March 2000.
  6. ^ Hollington, Kris. 2008. Wolves, Jackals, and Foxes: The Assassins Who Changed History. New York: Macmillan, p. 117. ISBN 978-0-3123-7899-8
  7. ^ Morris, Michael and Linnegar, John with the South Africa Ministry of Education, Human Sciences Research Council, Social Cohesion & Integration Research Programme. 2004. Every Step of the Way: the journey to freedom in South Africa‎. Cape Town: HSRC Press, pp. 184–185. ISBN 978-0-7969-2061-4
  8. ^ Account of Tsafendas in South Africa before the assassination. Archived by WebCite at [2] Retrieved on 8 July 2009.
  9. ^ Bell, Terry Bell and Ntsebeza, Dumisa Buhle. 2003. Unfinished Business: South Africa, apartheid, and truth. New York: Verso, p. 57. ISBN 978-1-8598-4545-5
  10. ^ Obituary: Long-jailed assassin of South African premier in The Guardian, 11 October 1999. Archived by WebCite at [3] Retrieved on 8 July 2009.
  11. ^ "The Tapeworm Murder", Time Magazine. 28 October 1966.
  12. ^ Jon Robins. "The Assassin and the Tapeworm," The New Statesman. London. 27 March 2000.
  13. ^ Obituaries: "Dimitri Tsafendas; S. African Assassin," The Los Angeles Times. 8 October 1999
  14. ^ van Woerden, Henk (translated by Dan Jacobson). 2002. The Assassin: a story of race and rage in the land of apartheid. New York: Macmillan. pp. 159–163. ISBN 978-0-3124-2084-0
  15. ^ Carter, Alice T. "Musings of 'I.D.' Offer Intellectual Exercise," Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 24 May 2005.

Freedom Charter

The Freedom Charter was the statement of core principles of the South African Congress Alliance, which consisted of the African National Congress and its allies the South African Indian Congress, the South African Congress of Democrats and the Coloured People's Congress. It is characterized by its opening demand; "The People Shall Govern!"

In 1955, the ANC sent out fifty thousand volunteers into townships and the countryside to collect 'freedom demands' from the people of South Africa. This system was designed to give all South Africans equal rights. Demands such as "Land to be given to all landless people", "Living wages and shorter hours of work", "Free and compulsory education, irrespective of colour, race or nationality" were synthesized into the final document by ANC leaders including Z.K. Mathews and Lionel 'Rusty' Bernstein . The Charter was officially adopted on June 26, 1955 at a Congress of the People in Kliptown. The meeting was attended by roughly three thousand delegates but was broken up by police on the second day, although by then the charter had been read in full. The crowd had shouted its approval of each section with cries of 'Afrika!' and 'Mayibuye!'Nelson Mandela only escaped the police by disguising himself as a milkman, as his movements and interactions were restricted by banning orders at the time.

The document is notable for its demand for and commitment to a non-racial South Africa, and this has remained the platform of the ANC. Members of the ANC with opposing Africanist views left the group after it adopted the charter, forming the Pan Africanist Congress. The charter also calls for democracy and human rights, land reform, labour rights, and nationalization. After the congress was denounced as treason, the South African government banned the ANC and arrested 156 activists, including Mandela who was imprisoned in 1962. However, the charter continued to circulate in the revolutionary underground and inspired a new generation of young militants in the 1980s.

On February 11, 1990, Mandela was finally freed and the ANC came to power soon afterwards in May 1994. The new 'Constitution of South Africa' included in its text many of the demands called for in the Freedom Charter. Nearly all the enumerated concerns regarding equality of race and language were directly addressed in the constitution, although the document included nothing to the effect of the nationalization of industry or redistribution of land, both of which were specifically outlined in the charter.

The Freedom Charter

As adopted at the Congress of the People, Kliptown, on 26 June 1955

We, the People of South Africa, declare for all our country and the world to know:
    that South Africa belongs to all who live in it, black and white, and that no government can justly claim authority unless it is based on the will of all the people; that our people have been robbed of their birthright to land, liberty and peace by a form of government founded on injustice and inequality; that our country will never be prosperous or free until all our people live in brotherhood, enjoying equal rights and opportunities; that only a democratic state, based on the will of all the people, can secure to all their birthright without distinction of colour, race, sex or belief; And therefore, we, the people of South Africa, black and white together equals, countrymen and brothers adopt this Freedom Charter; And we pledge ourselves to strive together, sparing neither strength nor courage, until the democratic changes here set out have been won.

The People Shall Govern!

    Every man and woman shall have the right to vote for and to stand as a candidate for all bodies which make laws; All people shall be entitled to take part in the administration of the country; The rights of the people shall be the same, regardless of race, colour or sex; All bodies of minority rule, advisory boards, councils and authorities shall be replaced by democratic organs of self-government .

All National Groups Shall have Equal Rights!

    There shall be equal status in the bodies of state, in the courts and in the schools for all national groups and races; All people shall have equal right to use their own languages, and to develop their own folk culture and customs; All national groups shall be protected by law against insults to their race and national pride; The preaching and practice of national, race or colour discrimination and contempt shall be a punishable crime; All apartheid laws and practices shall be set aside.

The People Shall Share in the Country`s Wealth!

    The national wealth of our country, the heritage of South Africans, shall be restored to the people; The mineral wealth beneath the soil, the Banks and monopoly industry shall be transferred to the ownership of the people as a whole; All other industry and trade shall be controlled to assist the wellbeing of the people; All people shall have equal rights to trade where they choose, to manufacture and to enter all trades, crafts and professions.

The Land Shall be Shared Among Those Who Work It!

    Restrictions of land ownership on a racial basis shall be ended, and all the land re-divided amongst those who work it to banish famine and land hunger; The state shall help the peasants with implements, seed, tractors and dams to save the soil and assist the tillers; Freedom of movement shall be guaranteed to all who work on the land; All shall have the right to occupy land wherever they choose; People shall not be robbed of their cattle, and forced labour and farm prisons shall be abolished.

All Shall be Equal Before the Law!

    No-one shall be imprisoned, deported or restricted without a fair trial; No-one shall be condemned by the order of any Government official; The courts shall be representative of all the people; Imprisonment shall be only for serious crimes against the people, and shall aim at re-education, not vengeance; The police force and army shall be open to all on an equal basis and shall be the helpers and protectors of the people; All laws which discriminate on grounds of race, colour or belief shall be repealed.

All Shall Enjoy Equal Human Rights!

    The law shall guarantee to all their right to speak, to organise, to meet together, to publish, to preach, to worship and to educate their children; The privacy of the house from police raids shall be protected by law; All shall be free to travel without restriction from countryside to town, from province to province, and from South Africa abroad; Pass Laws, permits and all other laws restricting these freedoms shall be abolished.

There Shall be Work and Security!

    All who work shall be free to form trade unions, to elect their officers and to make wage agreements with their employers; The state shall recognise the right and duty of all to work, and to draw full unemployment benefits; Men and women of all races shall receive equal pay for equal work; There shall be a forty-hour working week, a national minimum wage, paid annual leave, and sick leave for all workers, and maternity leave on full pay for all working mothers; Miners, domestic workers, farm workers and civil servants shall have the same rights as all others who work; Child labour, compound labour, the tot system and contract labour shall be abolished.

The Doors of Learning and Culture Shall be Opened!

    The government shall discover, develop and encourage national talent for the enhancement of our cultural life; All the cultural treasures of mankind shall be open to all, by free exchange of books, ideas and contact with other lands; The aim of education shall be to teach the youth to love their people and their culture, to honour human brotherhood, liberty and peace; Education shall be free, compulsory, universal and equal for all children; Higher education and technical training shall be opened to all by means of state allowances and scholarships awarded on the basis of merit; Adult illiteracy shall be ended by a mass state education plan; Teachers shall have all the rights of other citizens; The colour bar in cultural life, in sport and in education shall be abolished.

There Shall be Houses, Security and Comfort!

    All people shall have the right to live where they choose, be decently housed, and to bring up their families in comfort and security; Unused housing space to be made available to the people; Rent and prices shall be lowered, food plentiful and no-one shall go hungry; A preventive health scheme shall be run by the state; Free medical care and hospitalisation shall be provided for all, with special care for mothers and young children; Slums shall be demolished, and new suburbs built where all have transport, roads, lighting, playing fields, creches and social centres; The aged, the orphans, the disabled and the sick shall be cared for by the state; Rest, leisure and recreation shall be the right of all: Fenced locations and ghettoes shall be abolished, and laws which break up families shall be repealed.

There Shall be Peace and Friendship!

    South Africa shall be a fully independent state which respects the rights and sovereignty of all nations; South Africa shall strive to maintain world peace and the settlement of all international disputes by negotiation - not war; Peace and friendship amongst all our people shall be secured by upholding the equal rights, opportunities and status of all; The people of the protectorates Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland shall be free to decide for themselves their own future; The right of all peoples of Africa to independence and self-government shall be recognised, and shall be the basis of close co-operation. Let all people who love their people and their country now say, as we say here:
THESE FREEDOMS WE WILL FIGHT FOR, SIDE BY SIDE, THROUGHOUT OUR LIVES, UNTIL WE HAVE WON OUR LIBERTY

Robert Kennedy's speech in Cape Town

6 Jun 1966

Mr. Chancellor, Mr. Vice Chancellor, Professor Robertson, Mr. Diamond, Mr. Daniel, and Ladies and Gentlemen:

I come here this evening because of my deep interest and affection for a land settled by the Dutch in the mid-seventeenth century, then taken over by the British, and at last independent; a land in which the native inhabitants were at first subdued, but relations with whom remain a problem to this day; a land which defined itself on a hostile frontier; a land which has tamed rich natural resources through the energetic application of modern technology; a land which once the importer of slaves, and now must struggle to wipe out the last traces of that former bondage. I refer, of course, to the United States of America.
But I am glad to come here — and my wife and I and all of our party are glad to come here to South Africa, and we’re glad to come to Cape Town. I am already greatly enjoying my stay and my visit here. I am making an effort to meet and exchange views with people of all walks of life, and all segments of South African opinion, including those who represent the views of the government.
Today I am glad to meet with the National Union of South African Students. For a decade, NUSAS has stood and worked for the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights — principles which embody the collective hopes of men of good will all around the globe. Your work at home and in international student affairs has brought great credit to yourselves and to your country. I know the National Student Association in the United States feels a particularly close relationship with this organization.
And I wish to thank especially Mr. Ian Robertson, who first extended the invitation on behalf of NUSAS. I wish to thank him for his kindness to me in inviting me. I am very sorry that he can not be with us here this evening. I was happy to have had the opportunity to meet and speak with him earlier this evening. And I presented him with a copy of Profiles in Courage which was a book that was written by President John Kennedy and was signed to him by President Kennedy’s widow, Mrs. John Kennedy.
This is a Day of Affirmation, a celebration of liberty. We stand here in the name of freedom. At the heart of that Western freedom and democracy is the belief that the individual man, the child of God, is the touchstone of value, and all society, all groups and states exist for that person’s benefit. Therefore, the enlargement of liberty for individual human beings must be the supreme goal and the abiding practice of any Western society.
The first element of this individual liberty is the freedom of speech: the right to express and communicate ideas, to set oneself apart from the dumb beasts of field and forest; the right to recall governments to their duties and to their  obligations; above all, the right to affirm one’s membership and allegiance to the body politic — to society — to the men with whom we share our land, our heritage, and our children’s future.
Hand in hand with freedom of speech goes the power to be heard, to share in the decisions of government which shape men’s lives. Everything that makes man’s life worthwhile — family, work, education, a place to rear one’s children and a place to rest one’s head — all this depends on the decisions of government; all can be swept away by a government which does not heed the demands of its people, and I mean all of its people. Therefore, the essential humanity of man can be protected and preserved only where government must answer — not just to the wealthy, not just to those of a particular religion, not just to those of a particular race, but to all of the people.
And even government by the consent of the governed, as in our own Constitution, must be limited in its power to act against its people, so that there may be no interference with the right to worship, but also no interference with the security of the home; no arbitrary imposition of pains or penalties on an ordinary citizen by officials high or low; no restriction on the freedom of men to seek education, or to seek work or opportunity of any kind, so that each man may become all that he is capable of becoming.
These — These are the sacred rights of Western society. These were the essential differences between us and Nazi Germany, as they were between Athens and Persia.
They are the essence of our differences with communism today. I am unalterably opposed to communism because it exalts the State over the individual and over the family; and because its system contains a lack of freedom of speech, of protest, of religion, and of the press, which is characteristic of a totalitarian regime. The way of opposition to communism, however, is not to imitate its dictatorship, but to enlarge individual human freedoms. There are those in every land who would label as Communist every threat to their privilege. But may I say to you as I have seen on my travels in all sections of the world, reform is not communism. And the denial of freedom, in whatever name, only strengthens the very communism it claims to oppose.
Many nations have set forth their own definitions and declarations of these principles. And there have often been wide and tragic gaps between promise and performance, ideal and reality. Yet the great ideals have constantly recalled us to our own duties. And with painful slowness, we in the United States have extended and enlarged the meaning and the practice of freedom to all of our people.
For two centuries, my own country has struggled to overcome the self-imposed handicap of prejudice and discrimination based on nationality, on social class or race — discrimination profoundly repugnant to the theory and to the command of our Constitution. Even as my father grew up in Boston, Massachusetts, signs told him: "No Irish Need Apply." Two generations later President Kennedy became the first Irish Catholic, and the first Catholic, to head the nation; but how many men of ability had, before 1961, been denied the opportunity to contribute to the nation’s progress because they were Catholic or because they were of Irish extraction? How many sons of Italian or Jewish or Polish parents slumbered in the slums — untaught, unlearned, their potential lost forever to our nation and to the human race? Even today, what price will we pay before we have assured full opportunity to millions of Negro Americans?
In the last five years we have done more to assure equality to our Negro citizens, and to help the deprived both white and black, than in the hundred years before that time. But much, much more remains to be done. For there are millions of Negroes untrained for the simplest of jobs, and thousands every day denied their full and equal rights under the law; and the violence of the disinherited, the insulted, the injured, looms over the streets of Harlem and of Watts and of the South Side Chicago.
But a Negro American trains now as an astronaut, one of mankind’s first explorers into outer space; another is the chief barrister of the United States government, and dozens sit on the benches of our court; and another, Dr. Martin Luther King, is the second man of African descent to win the Nobel Peace Prize for his nonviolent efforts for social justice between all of the races.
We have passed laws prohibiting — We have passed laws prohibiting discrimination in education, in employment, in housing, but these laws alone cannot overcome the heritage of centuries — of broken families and stunted children, and poverty and degradation and pain.
So the road toward equality of freedom is not easy, and great cost and danger march alongside all of us. We are committed to peaceful and nonviolent change, and that is important to all to understand — though change is unsettling. Still, even in the turbulence of protest and struggle is greater hope for the future, as men learn to claim and achieve for themselves the rights formerly petitioned from others.
And most important of all, all of the panoply of government power has been committed to the goal of equality before the law, as we are now committing ourselves to the achievement of equal opportunity in fact. We must recognize the full human equality of all of our people before God, before the law, and in the councils of government. We must do this, not because it is economically advantageous, although it is; not because the laws of God command it, although they do; not because people in other lands wish it so. We must do it for the single and fundamental reason that it is the right thing to do.
We recognize that there are problems and obstacles before the fulfillment of these ideals in the United States, as we recognize that other nations, in Latin America and in Asia and in Africa, have their own political, economic, and social problems, their unique barriers to the elimination of injustices.
In some, there is concern that change will submerge the rights of a minority, particularly where that minority is of a different race than that of the majority. We in the United States believe in the protection of minorities; we recognize the contributions that they can make and the leadership that they can provide; and we do not believe that any people — whether majority or minority, or individual human beings — are "expendable" in the cause of theory or of policy. We recognize also that justice between men and nations is imperfect, and the humanity sometimes progresses very slowly indeed.
All do not develop in the same manner and at the same pace. Nations, like men, often march to the beat of different drummers, and the precise solutions of the United States can neither be dictated nor transplanted to others — and that is not our intention. What is important, however, is that all nations must march toward increasing freedom, toward justice for all, toward a society strong and flexible enough to meet the demands of all of its people — whatever their race — and the demands that the world of immense and dizzying change that face us all.
In a few hours, the plane that brought me to this country crossed over oceans and countries which have been a crucible of human history. In minutes we traced migrations of men over thousands of years; seconds, the briefest glimpse, and we passed battlefields on which millions of men once struggled and died. We could see no national boundaries, no vast gulfs or high walls dividing people from people; only nature and the works of man — homes and factories and farms — everywhere reflecting Man’s common effort to enrich his life. Everywhere new technology and communications brings men and nations closer together, the concerns of one inevitably becomes the concerns of all. And our new closeness is stripping away the false masks, the illusion of differences which is the root of injustice and of hate and of war. Only earthbound man still clings to the dark and poisoning superstition that his world is bounded by the nearest hill, his universe ends at river shore, his common humanity is enclosed in the tight circle of those who share his town or his views and the color of his skin.
It is — It is your job, the task of young people in this world, to strip the last remnants of that ancient, cruel belief from the civilization of man.
Each nation has different obstacles and different goals, shaped by the vagaries of history and of experience. Yet as I talk to young people around the world, I am impressed not by the diversity but by the closeness of their goals, their desires and their concerns and their hope for the future. There is discrimination in New York, the racial inequality of apartheid in South Africa, and serfdom in the mountains of Peru. People starve to death in the streets of India; a former Prime Minister is summarily executed in the Congo; intellectuals go to jail in Russia, and thousands are slaughtered in Indonesia; wealth is lavished on armaments everywhere in the world.
These are different evils, but they are the common works of man. They reflect the imperfections of human justice, the inadequacy of human compassion, the defectiveness of our sensibility toward the sufferings of our fellows; they mark the limit of our ability to use knowledge for the well-being of our fellow human beings throughout the world. And therefore they call upon common qualities of conscience and indignation, a shared determination to wipe away the unnecessary sufferings of our fellow human beings at home and around the world.
It is these qualities which make of our youth today the only true international community. More than this, I think that we could agree on what kind of a world we would all want to build. It would be a world of independent nations, moving toward international community, each of which protected and respected the basic human freedoms. It would be a world which demanded of each government that it accept its responsibility to insure social justice. It would be a world of constantly accelerating economic progress — not material welfare as an end in/of itself, but as a means to liberate the capacity of every human being to pursue his talents and to pursue his hopes. It would, in short, be a world that we would all be proud to have built.
Just to the north of here are lands of challenge and of opportunity, rich in natural resources — land and minerals and people. Yet they are also lands confronted by the greatest odds — overwhelming ignorance, internal tensions and strife, and great obstacles of climate and geography. Many of these nations, as colonies, were oppressed and were exploited. Yet they have not estranged themselves from the broad traditions of the West; they are hoping and they are gambling their progress and their stability on the chance that we will meet our responsibilities to them to help them overcome their poverty.
In the world we would like to build, South Africa could play an outstanding role, and a role of leadership in that effort. This country is without question a preeminent repository of the wealth and the knowledge and the skill of this continent. Here are the greater part of Africa’s research scientists and steel production, most of its reservoirs of coal and of electric power. Many South Africans have made major contributions to African technical development and world science. The names of some are known wherever men seek to eliminate the ravages of tropical disease and of pestilence. In your faculties and councils, here in this very audience, are hundreds and thousands of men and women who could transform the lives of millions for all time to come.
But the help and the leadership of South Africa or of the United States cannot be accepted if we, within our own country or in our relationships with others, deny individual integrity, human dignity, and the common humanity of man. If we would lead outside our own borders, if we would help those who need our assistance, if we would meet our responsibilities to mankind, we must first, all of us, demolish the borders which history has erected between men within our own nations — barriers of race and religion, social class and ignorance.
Our answer is the world’s hope: It is to rely on youth. The cruelties and the obstacles of this swiftly changing planet will not yield to obsolete dogmas and outworn slogans. It cannot be moved by those who cling to a present which is already dying, who prefer the illusion of security to the excitement and danger which comes with even the most peaceful progress.
This world demands the qualities of youth; not a time of life but a state of mind, a temper of the will, a quality of the imagination, a predominance of courage over timidity, of the appetite for adventure over the life of ease — a man like the Chancellor of this University.
It is a revolutionary world that we all live in, and thus, as I have said in Latin America and in Asia and in Europe and in my own country, the United States, it is the young people who must take the lead. Thus, you, and your young compatriots everywhere, have had thrust upon you a greater burden of responsibility than any generation that has ever lived.
"There is," said an Italian philosopher,¹ "nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success than to take the lead in the — in the introduction of a new order of things." Yet this is the measure of the task of your generation, and the road is strewn with many dangers.
First, is the danger of futility: the belief there is nothing one man or one woman can do against the enormous array of the world’s ills — against misery, against ignorance, or injustice and violence. Yet many of the world’s great movements, of thought and action, have flowed from the work of a single man. A young monk began the Protestant Reformation, a young general extended an empire from Macedonia to the borders of the earth, and a young woman reclaimed the territory of France. It was a young Italian explorer who discovered the New World, and 32 year-old Thomas Jefferson who proclaimed that "all men are created equal."
"Give me a place to stand," said Archimedes, "and I will move the world." These men moved the world, and so can we all. Few will have the greatness to bend history, but each of us can work to change a small portion of the events, and then the total — all of these acts — will be written in the history of this generation.
Thousands of Peace Corps volunteers are making a difference in the isolated villages and the city slums of dozens of countries. Thousands of unknown men and women in Europe resisted the occupation of the Nazis and many died, but all added to the ultimate strength and freedom of their countries. It is from numberless diverse acts of courage such as these that the belief that human history is thus shaped. Each time a man stands up for an ideal, or acts to improve the lot of others, or strikes out against injustice, he sends forth a tiny ripple of hope, and crossing each other from a million different centers of energy and daring, those ripples build a current which can sweep down the mightiest walls of oppression and resistance.
"If Athens shall appear great to you," said Pericles, "consider then that her glories were purchased by valiant men, and by men who learned their duty." That is the source of all greatness in all societies, and it is the key to progress in our time.
The second danger is that of expediency: of those who say that hopes and beliefs must bend before immediate necessities. Of course, if we must act effectively we must deal with the world as it is. We must get things done. But if there was one thing that President Kennedy stood for that touched the most profound feeling of young people around the world, it was the belief that idealism, high aspirations, and deep convictions are not incompatible with the most practical and efficient of programs — that there is no basic inconsistency between ideals and realistic possibilities, no separation between the deepest desires of heart and of mind and the rational application of human effort to human problems. It is not realistic or hardheaded to solve problems and take action unguided by ultimate moral aims and values, although we all know some who claim that it is so. In my judgment, it is thoughtless folly. For it ignores the realities of human faith and of passion and of belief — forces ultimately more powerful than all of the calculations of our economists or of our generals. Of course to adhere to standards, to idealism, to vision in the face of immediate dangers takes great courage and takes self-confidence. But we also know that only those who dare to fail greatly, can ever achieve greatly.
It is this new idealism which is also, I believe, the common heritage of a generation which has learned that while efficiency can lead to the camps at Auschwitz, or the streets of Budapest, only the ideals of humanity and love can climb the hills of the Acropolis.
And a third danger is timidity. Few men are willing to brave the disapproval of their fellows, the censure of their colleagues, the wrath of their society. Moral courage is a rarer commodity than bravery in battle or great intelligence. Yet it is the one essential, vital quality for those who seek to change the world — which yields most painfully to change. Aristotle tells us: "At the Olympic games it is not the finest or the strongest men who are crowned, but those who enter the lists." "So too in the life of the honorable and the good it is they who act rightly who win the prize." I believe that in this generation those with the courage to enter the conflict will find themselves with companions in every corner of the world.
For the fortunate amongst us, the fourth danger, my friends, is comfort, the temptation to follow the easy and familiar paths of personal ambition and financial success so grandly spread before those who have the privilege of an education. But that is not the road history has marked out for us. There is a Chinese curse which says, "May he live in interesting times." Like it or not we live in interesting times. They are times of danger and uncertainty; but they are also the most creative of any time in the history of mankind. And everyone here will ultimately be judged, will ultimately judge himself, on the effort he has contributed to building a new world society and the extent to which his ideals and goals have shaped that effort.
So we part, I to my country and you to remain. We are, if a man of 40 can claim the privilege, fellow members of the world’s largest younger generation. Each of us have our own work to do. I know at times you must feel very alone with your problems and with your difficulties. But I want to say how I — impressed I am with the stand — with what you stand for and for the effort that you are making; and I say this not just for myself, but men and women all over the world. And I hope you will often take heart from the knowledge that you are joined with your fellow young people in every land, they struggling with their problems and you with yours, but all joined in a common purpose; that, like the young people of my own country and of every country that I have visited, you are all in many ways more closely united to the brothers of your time than to the older generations in any of these nations. You’re determined to build a better future.
President Kennedy was speaking to the young people of America, but beyond them to young people everywhere, when he said: "the energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it; and the glow from that fire can truly light the world." And, he added, "With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking His blessing and His help, but knowing that here on earth God’s work must truly be our own."

I thank you.

 

Bobby Kennedy‘s funeral.  The speaker delivering the eulogy is Bobby’s younger brother, Teddy, but the speech was originally given by Bobby at the Annual Day of Affirmation at the University of Cape Town back in 1966.

Zuma Charms Farmers

May 12, 2011


Zuma was responding to concerns raised by the Greytown farming community over Malema's assertion that land earmarked for redistribution could be taken away without payment if the farmers did not accept the money offered for it. 


"What Malema said is neither the ANC's nor the government's policy," Zuma said yesterday while on the election campaign trail in impoverished Msinga, in the Greytown area of the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. 


PARTY TIME: President Jacob Zuma dances during yesterday's election rally in Pamaroy near Msinga in the Greytown area of the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands


"Policies are not for individuals but are discussed. The ANCYL cannot determine policies. People can have ideas and those ideas discussed in the ANC. There were many Malemas before, but issues were discussed within the organisation and policies formulated," Zuma said.
"You will be surprised that one day Malema will be stopping others from raising what he had raised before.
"Malema is on a learning curve and the farming community must not be shaken by his comments. What he says are simply his views." 


Zuma went on to say that the ANC was older than its outspoken youth leader. 


"There was a similar concern when the ANCYL had an idea about the nationalisation of mines. We allowed that to be discussed and debated in the ANC because it had been previously debated many decades before when Nelson Mandela came out of prison. The nationalisation of mines was also discussed and we came [up] with a mixed economy policy. The ANC does not take policy [decisions] emotionally." 


Earlier, Michael Yeadon, a community leader who represents farmers in the Greytown area, told Zuma that Malema was a "very scary man" within the community. 


"As a faming community, we also want clean water, roads and schools so that we will be able to feed the community of Greytown and be able create job opportunities.
"Also, we want the ANC to be more accessible to us so that we can work together and be able to deliver to the community. We want the assurance from the president that we will be protected [from Malema]." 


After assuring farmers that their land would not be taken from them, Zuma urged farmers, the business community and local traditional leaders to vote for the ANC in next Wednesday's local government elections. 


"It is the only party that has the clear understanding of the needs of the people," Zuma said. 


Greytown and Msinga - the focus of Zuma's visit yesterday - have been IFP-controlled since the first local government elections in 1996. Development in the area has been almost nonexistent.
There is very little infrastructure in the area, which has massive unemployment, and tens of thousands of people are forced to live with no access to proper housing, running water, tarred roads or electricity. 


Zuma was confronted by scores of dissatisfied residents who made it clear that they now want to try their luck with the ruling party to see whether it can deliver their basic needs. 


However, the IFP mayor of Msinga Local Municipality, Joshua Sikakhane, has rubbished their claims, saying poor service delivery in the area stemmed from the fact that their annual budget was a mere R72-million - "very little" in his view. This was in addition to a R61-million annual grant from the national government for the provision of services. 


According to the 2001 national census more than 168000 people live in Msinga.
Msinga falls under the IFP-led Umzinyathi municipality, and many locals claim councillors have failed them for two terms. 




A Grade 11 pupil at Madudula High School, Sifiso Ndlovu, said residents were pinning their hopes on an ANC victory in the area. "We have no water, no toilets and few access roads. The critical thing that we want to see is provision of proper service delivery like other areas," he said. 


Although a few clans in the area have access to water, roads, sanitation and electricity, residents claim that not a single low-cost house has been built in the area. 


Sikakhane said: "With the little we get, we have been able to appoint a contractor to start building 500 low-cost houses. These will be the first batch of houses for the local people. The building of these houses was the brainchild of my municipality, responding to the complaints of the community. We have seen many communities benefiting from the Department of Human Settlements building houses, but uMsinga was often left out."
Sikakhane said the IFP-led municipality had sunk boreholes to give residents access to clean running water. 


Zuma and Malema's Land Grab Views

May 11, 2011 


President Jacob Zuma today distanced the ruling party from ANCYL leader Julius Malema’s private views on land distribution. 


Zuma was responding to concerns raised by the Greytown farming community over comments made by Malema late last year that land earmarked for redistribution could be taken away without payment if they did not accept the money offered for it.

“What Malema said is neither the ANC’s nor the government’s policy, Zuma said yesterday while on the election campaign trail in impoverished Msinga, in the Greytown area of the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. 


‘’Policies are not for individuals but are discussed. The ANCYL cannot determine policies. 


People can have ideas and those ideas discussed in the ANC. There were many Malemas before but issues were discussed within the organisation and policies formulated,’’ Zuma said. 
 
“You will be surprised that one day Malema will be stopping others from raising what he had raised before. Malema is on a learning curve and the farming community must not be shaken by his comments. What he says are simply his views.” 


Zuma went on to say that the ANC was older than its outspoken youth leader. 


“There was a similar concern when the ANCYL had an idea about the nationalisation of mines.


We allowed that to be discussed and debated in the ANC because it had been previously debated many decades before when Nelson Mandela came out of prison. The nationalisation of mines also discussed and we came [up] with a mixed economy policy. The ANC does not take policy [decisions] emotionally”. 


Earlier, Michael Yeadon, a community leader who represents farmers in the Greytown area, told Zuma, that Malema was a “very scary man” within the community. 


“As a faming community, we also want clean water, roads and schools so that that we will be able to feed the community of Greytown and be able create job opportunities. Also, we want the ANC to be more accessible to us so that we can work together and be able to deliver to the community. We want the assurance from the president that we will be protected [against Malema]”. 


After assuring farmers that their land would not be taken from them, Zuma urged farmers, the business community and local traditional leaders to vote for the ANC in next Wednesday’s local government elections because “it is the only party that has the clear understanding of the needs of the people”. 


He said there have been calls that people must vote for other parties to create a strong opposition but he believed that good policies were more important than the size of political parties. 


“We understand the people and their challenges in the ANC that is why we came out with five priorities,” he said. 


Zuma said education was the priority for the ANC as there’s a need for skills in the country.
“Without education, we will remain a developing state”. 


He also challenged business people to play their part in prioritizing the national priority of job creation. 


Greytown and Msinga have been under the control of the IFP since the first local government elections in 1996. Development in the area has been almost non-exsistent. There is very little infrastructure in the area, which has massive unemployment, and tens of thousands of people after forced to live in extremely harsh conditions, including no access to proper housing, running water, tarred roads and electricity. 


At Nhlalakahle, also in the Msinga area, Zuma yesterday used the metaphor of love relationships to talk the community into voting. 


“Boyfriends and girlfriends should make their appointments on the voting stations on May 18. 


Girlfriends should make sure that their boyfriends vote for the ANC and boyfriends should ensure that their girlfriends vote for the ANC. People should not continue to vote for parties that have no capacity and would not deliver to their needs,” he said. 


At Pomeroy he promised that after the community “voted for the ANC” next week, they will see actual delivery. 


Zuma Charms Farmers

May 12, 2011


Zuma was responding to concerns raised by the Greytown farming community over Malema's assertion that land earmarked for redistribution could be taken away without payment if the farmers did not accept the money offered for it. 


"What Malema said is neither the ANC's nor the government's policy," Zuma said yesterday while on the election campaign trail in impoverished Msinga, in the Greytown area of the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. 


PARTY TIME: President Jacob Zuma dances during yesterday's election rally in Pamaroy near Msinga in the Greytown area of the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands


"Policies are not for individuals but are discussed. The ANCYL cannot determine policies. People can have ideas and those ideas discussed in the ANC. There were many Malemas before, but issues were discussed within the organisation and policies formulated," Zuma said.
"You will be surprised that one day Malema will be stopping others from raising what he had raised before.
"Malema is on a learning curve and the farming community must not be shaken by his comments. What he says are simply his views." 


Zuma went on to say that the ANC was older than its outspoken youth leader. 


"There was a similar concern when the ANCYL had an idea about the nationalisation of mines. We allowed that to be discussed and debated in the ANC because it had been previously debated many decades before when Nelson Mandela came out of prison. The nationalisation of mines was also discussed and we came [up] with a mixed economy policy. The ANC does not take policy [decisions] emotionally." 


Earlier, Michael Yeadon, a community leader who represents farmers in the Greytown area, told Zuma that Malema was a "very scary man" within the community. 


"As a faming community, we also want clean water, roads and schools so that we will be able to feed the community of Greytown and be able create job opportunities.
"Also, we want the ANC to be more accessible to us so that we can work together and be able to deliver to the community. We want the assurance from the president that we will be protected [from Malema]." 


After assuring farmers that their land would not be taken from them, Zuma urged farmers, the business community and local traditional leaders to vote for the ANC in next Wednesday's local government elections. 


"It is the only party that has the clear understanding of the needs of the people," Zuma said. 


Greytown and Msinga - the focus of Zuma's visit yesterday - have been IFP-controlled since the first local government elections in 1996. Development in the area has been almost nonexistent.
There is very little infrastructure in the area, which has massive unemployment, and tens of thousands of people are forced to live with no access to proper housing, running water, tarred roads or electricity. 


Zuma was confronted by scores of dissatisfied residents who made it clear that they now want to try their luck with the ruling party to see whether it can deliver their basic needs. 


However, the IFP mayor of Msinga Local Municipality, Joshua Sikakhane, has rubbished their claims, saying poor service delivery in the area stemmed from the fact that their annual budget was a mere R72-million - "very little" in his view. This was in addition to a R61-million annual grant from the national government for the provision of services. 


According to the 2001 national census more than 168000 people live in Msinga.
Msinga falls under the IFP-led Umzinyathi municipality, and many locals claim councillors have failed them for two terms. 




A Grade 11 pupil at Madudula High School, Sifiso Ndlovu, said residents were pinning their hopes on an ANC victory in the area. "We have no water, no toilets and few access roads. The critical thing that we want to see is provision of proper service delivery like other areas," he said. 


Although a few clans in the area have access to water, roads, sanitation and electricity, residents claim that not a single low-cost house has been built in the area. 


Sikakhane said: "With the little we get, we have been able to appoint a contractor to start building 500 low-cost houses. These will be the first batch of houses for the local people. The building of these houses was the brainchild of my municipality, responding to the complaints of the community. We have seen many communities benefiting from the Department of Human Settlements building houses, but uMsinga was often left out."
Sikakhane said the IFP-led municipality had sunk boreholes to give residents access to clean running water. 


Racism and Judge Nkola Motata

Afriforum lodges racism complaint against Motata

May 12, 2111


 The Judicial Conduct Committee (JCC) is expected to hear a racism complaint against Judge Nkola Motata, lodged by AfriForum, on Saturday. 


"The JCC invited AfriForum to address the meeting on Saturday and to make a submission in writing to the JCC concerning Motata's conduct," AfriForum CEO Kallie Kriel said on Thursday.

The complaint is related to remarks Motata made after he crashed his car into a wall in Johannesburg while drunk. 


AfriForum said that an audio recording of the events was played in the Johannesburg Magistrate's Court during his trial and that he had made racist remarks against whites after the crash. 


"Among other things, Motata said with reference to Mr Richard Baird, owner of the house where the crash happened: 'No Boer is going to undermine me. This used to be the white man's land, but it isn't anymore.' 


"Motata also allegedly told members of the Johannesburg metro police who tried to calm him that they should not support the white man," said Kriel. 


They believe that Motata's conduct violates the public's confidence in the legal system. 


If Motata is found guilty of gross misconduct he has to be removed, by the president and by a two thirds majority vote in the National Assembly. 


The judge crashed his car into the perimeter wall of a house in Hurlingham, north of Johannesburg, in 2007. 


In November the High Court in Johannesburg turned down his application for leave to appeal the conviction and sentence for drunk driving. 


He was fined R20,000 or one year in jail. 


He was placed on special leave for the trial, and it was not immediately clear on Thursday if he was back at work and whether he had petitioned the Supreme Court of Appeal directly for leave to appeal. 


AfriForum also took ANC Youth League president Julius Malema to the Equality Court on a hate speech charge for singing lyrics that translate as "Shoot the Boer".
That case continues.

 http://www.timeslive.co.za/local/article1064506.ece/Afriforum-lodges-racism-complaint-against-Motata

Mandela Grandson in Court

May 12, 2011

Nelson Mandela's grandson, and business partner of President Jacob Zuma's nephew, Khulubuse Zuma, appeared in the Randburg Magistrate's Court yesterday on charges of speeding.
Zondwa Mandela, CEO of embattled mining company Aurora Empowerment Systems, was allegedly caught driving at 158km an hour in a residential area in Fairland, Johannesburg, on Saturday night. 


He was released the same night on R1000 bail by the Traffic Offences Court. 




The businessman was smartly dressed in a blue and white striped shirt and a blue suit when he made his first court appearance. 


He is also the director of a Johannesburg branding and marketing company. 


The court heard that photographs of Mandela's car were already in the docket. 


Mandela's attorney, Sello Baloyi, said his client would plead not guilty.
"We are going to challenge that," he said. 


The case was postponed to May 20 for further investigation. 


Zuma and Malema's Land Grab Views

May 11, 2011 


President Jacob Zuma today distanced the ruling party from ANCYL leader Julius Malema’s private views on land distribution. 


Zuma was responding to concerns raised by the Greytown farming community over comments made by Malema late last year that land earmarked for redistribution could be taken away without payment if they did not accept the money offered for it.

“What Malema said is neither the ANC’s nor the government’s policy, Zuma said yesterday while on the election campaign trail in impoverished Msinga, in the Greytown area of the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. 


‘’Policies are not for individuals but are discussed. The ANCYL cannot determine policies. 


People can have ideas and those ideas discussed in the ANC. There were many Malemas before but issues were discussed within the organisation and policies formulated,’’ Zuma said. 
 
“You will be surprised that one day Malema will be stopping others from raising what he had raised before. Malema is on a learning curve and the farming community must not be shaken by his comments. What he says are simply his views.” 


Zuma went on to say that the ANC was older than its outspoken youth leader. 


“There was a similar concern when the ANCYL had an idea about the nationalisation of mines.


We allowed that to be discussed and debated in the ANC because it had been previously debated many decades before when Nelson Mandela came out of prison. The nationalisation of mines also discussed and we came [up] with a mixed economy policy. The ANC does not take policy [decisions] emotionally”. 


Earlier, Michael Yeadon, a community leader who represents farmers in the Greytown area, told Zuma, that Malema was a “very scary man” within the community. 


“As a faming community, we also want clean water, roads and schools so that that we will be able to feed the community of Greytown and be able create job opportunities. Also, we want the ANC to be more accessible to us so that we can work together and be able to deliver to the community. We want the assurance from the president that we will be protected [against Malema]”. 


After assuring farmers that their land would not be taken from them, Zuma urged farmers, the business community and local traditional leaders to vote for the ANC in next Wednesday’s local government elections because “it is the only party that has the clear understanding of the needs of the people”. 


He said there have been calls that people must vote for other parties to create a strong opposition but he believed that good policies were more important than the size of political parties. 


“We understand the people and their challenges in the ANC that is why we came out with five priorities,” he said. 


Zuma said education was the priority for the ANC as there’s a need for skills in the country.
“Without education, we will remain a developing state”. 


He also challenged business people to play their part in prioritizing the national priority of job creation. 


Greytown and Msinga have been under the control of the IFP since the first local government elections in 1996. Development in the area has been almost non-exsistent. There is very little infrastructure in the area, which has massive unemployment, and tens of thousands of people after forced to live in extremely harsh conditions, including no access to proper housing, running water, tarred roads and electricity. 


At Nhlalakahle, also in the Msinga area, Zuma yesterday used the metaphor of love relationships to talk the community into voting. 


“Boyfriends and girlfriends should make their appointments on the voting stations on May 18. 


Girlfriends should make sure that their boyfriends vote for the ANC and boyfriends should ensure that their girlfriends vote for the ANC. People should not continue to vote for parties that have no capacity and would not deliver to their needs,” he said. 


At Pomeroy he promised that after the community “voted for the ANC” next week, they will see actual delivery. 


Make your Mark

ANC supporters carry a mock coffin during the rally in Soweto. The words on the coffin read, Sleep well Helen , in reference to Helen Zille.

Political parties used the closing rallies of their campaigns this weekend to fire up supporters and urge them to vote on Wednesday. 

While DA leader Helen Zille addressed about 4 500 party faithful in the OR Tambo Hall in Khayelitsha on Saturday, about 15 000 ANC supporters gathered at the Khayelitsha Stadium on Sunday to listen to a live broadcast of the ANC’s final rally in Joburg.
The biggest drawcard was the ANC’s Siyanqoba “we will win” rally at Soweto’s FNB stadium, where about 100 000 supporters gathered.
President Jacob Zuma’s message was one of municipal accountability and service delivery, while he again ran through the number of houses built and connected to basic services.
Also holding final rallies in Gauteng were the ACDP and PAC, while the Freedom Front Plus ended its campaign trail in Mokopane (Potgietersrus) on Saturday.
Elsewhere in Cape Town the UDM told about 3 000 supporters in Philippi township their ward councillors would keep communities informed and that dissatisfaction among ANC supporters over how councillors were nominated would be a growth opportunity for the party.
The message across the political party spectrum, regardless of manifesto promises?
Make your mark on Wednesday!
Voter turnout, say analysts, will be crucial, not only for the DA to prove its claim of increasing support among black voters, but also for the ANC to signal that dissatisfaction - at times violent - over the councillor nomination process, and over service delivery, had not damaged the party.
The other buzzword of these elections has been coalitions.
But how realistic talk of opposition co-operation against the ANC or the ANC’s possible need to find partners to maintain control remains to be seen after the votes have been counted.
At the live Siyanqoba broadcast in Khayelitsha, the mood among ANC leaders and officials was upbeat. Privately, many admit the campaign was nowhere six weeks ago, but mayoral candidate Tony Ehrenreich, has galvanised the campaign.
ANC heavyweight and national cabinet minister Trevor Manuel said Cape Town would be taken over. “Who do you want for mayor?” he asked the crowd. The reply: “Tony, Tony, Tony!”
“On May 18 we’re going to bury the rainbow madams,” said MK Veterans Association provincial leader Desmond Stevens, with reference to DA posters showing Zille, national spokeswoman Lindiwe Mazibuko and mayoral candidate Patricia de Lille.
Cosatu’s backing and membership may prove crucial, as the DA on Saturday said it would be a close run.
Zille, who was warmly welcomed, told supporters they should give the DA a chance to prove that it was better at delivering services to all. ”We stand to make gains in towns and cities across the country because we have plans and we are bringing people together…
“No other party can match us when it comes to diversity and delivery. No other party is as committed to reconciliation,” she told an enthusiastic audience.
Over the past month, politicians have knocked on the doors of thousands of homes across the country, stuffed pamphlets into post boxes, hung posters from lamp-posts and held meetings in many a venue.
Babies were kissed, hands shaken and music CDs produced. Political heavyweights furiously traversed the country. This is set to continue right up to the last minute for Zuma and Zille.
The battlefields have been identified, from Tlokwe (Potchefstroom), where the ANC failed to register candidates in a number of wards, allegedly because of an administrative oversight, to Nelson Mandela Bay, where dissatisfaction with the administration is said to be so high that an opposition party coalition could be on the cards.
Tshwane may also present an outside chance of a coalition, while political analysts dismiss such claims for Joburg, regardless of the billing saga.
In Midvaal, the only DA-held council in Gauteng, the statue of apartheid architect HF Verwoerd sent political tempers soaring. It was finally taken down under cover of darkness.
DA councillor Christo Smith defected to the FF+ on Thursday. - Political Bureau 

Bombings by the ANC

Video very graphic how innocent people were killed by bombs Nelson Mandela instructed.

The ANC placed Bombs in several places in South Africa during apartheid. Many people were killed by these bombs, bombs don't discriminate, black and white were killed. 

The interesting part is the arms strugle was started by Nelson Mandela and he refused to stop the arms struggle, the government of that time said they would release him immediately if he would stop the arms struggle. 

Oliver Tambo instructed the Church Street bomb in South Africa this was done by Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) the ANC armed wing that was Started By Hero Nelson Mandela and by definition is nothing more than a terrorist. 

Nelson Mandela even sang their struggle song 'Kill the boer' after being released from prison.


 So much for democracy?